Due to a suspected case of fluorosis in the family we picked up a fluoride testing kit. Since they were available we also picked up tests for bacteria, lead, pesticide, nitrate, nitrite, pH, hardness and chlorine.
Our tests were performed on the Upper West Side in Manhattan on December 31, 2012.
Bacteria Test: Positive**
Fluoride Test: 0.02 mg/L (Too low to be effective --Acceptable range: 0.8 mg/L to 1.2 *†)
Lead Test: Negative
Pesticide Test: Negative
Total Nitrate Test: 1 ppm. (Acceptable range: Below 10 ppm)
Nitrite Test: ~0.2 ppm. (Acceptable range: Below 1 ppm)
pH Test: 7.0. (Acceptable range: 6.5 to 8.5)
Hardness Test: 50 ppm. (Acceptable range: 50 ppm or less)
Chlorine Test: 0. (Acceptable range: Below 4 ppm)
** Bacteria test is for Coliform Bacteria which is fairly broad. To know the specific danger, if any, further and more specific testing is needed.
Bacteria test was run at Silver Lake Research Corporation in Monrovia, California.
* In 2009 "The optimal fluoride level in New York State is 1.0 mg/L. This level provides the most benefit to oral health. This is achieved when the fluoride level in finished water is maintained in the control range of 0.8 to 1.2 mg/L. Targeting the lower end of the control range, instead of 1.0 mg/l, can substantially reduce the benefit provided to the community, as the benefits of fluoridation are lost when fluoride levels drop below the optimal level." Source: NY Health Department.
† DEP is one of the many water suppliers in New York State that treats drinking water with a controlled, low level of fluoride for consumer dental health protection. According to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), fluoride is very effective in preventing cavities when present in drinking water at an optimal range of 0.7 to 1.2 mg/L. The New York City Health Code requires a fluoride concentration of 1.0
mg/L, and the NYSDOH maximum contaminant level (MCL) for fluoride is 2.2 mg/L." Source: 2011 NYC Water Report
"On January 13, 2011, the United States Department of Health and Human Services requested public comment on its proposal to lower the optimal fluoride target dose to 0.7 mg/L. In response NYSDOH issued guidance to public water supplies indicating that water suppliers in New York State could reduce the optimal fluoride target dose to 0.8 mg/L. Based on these developments the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene authorized DEP to lower the target dose for fluoride to 0.8 mg/L. This dosage change took effect on February 14, 2012."
Fluroride Tests were run at Environmental Laboratories, Inc. in Madison Indiana.
MTR s a great command-line tool for figuring out where a network is having problems between you and a host you are trying to reach.
With each version of the Mac OS the tools required to use it move. Here are the pieces and steps I assembled from various points on the interwebs.
Gather the pieces you need.
- MTR is available for free from BitWizard: ftp://ftp.bitwizard.nl/mtr/
- You will also need the latest XCode which you can download via the App Store on your computer
- Open XCode and go to Preferences -> Downloads and install "Command Line Tools"
To get things to compile on a Mac your instructions will diverge from the README slightly. On the command line:
- export LDFLAGS="-lresolv"
- ./configure --prefix=/usr --without-gtk
- sudo make install
BAM. You should be good to go. To try it out, type:
- mtr hausinteractive.com
You should see a screen something like this:
- MTR Software: BitWizard B.V.
- C Compiler Installation: John Martellaro for Mac Observer
- Compiling instructions for Mac OS X: Justus Beyer